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But a compromise found in the context of the arbitration could not solve the old conflicts. For the time being, wine serving and jurisdiction were left aside.

This effectively excluded the holders of the most important episcopal offices from the city council. Rudolf I died on July 15, , in Speyer and was entombed in the cathedral.

The sculpture on his tomb slab is a true-to-life depiction of the king created only shortly after his death and is considered an outstanding artistic accomplishment of that era.

In September , the council of Speyer submitted a solemn protest concerning the bishop's overbearing actions.

It was read out in all churches of the city. On October 31 that same year, Bishop Frederick of Bolanden and the city signed a contract in which basically all the longstanding demands of Speyer were met and which codified the termination of episcopal power in the city.

The bishop would staff law courts and offices at the recommendation of the city council. He could arrest neither clerics nor laymen without proof of guilt.

An arrangement for the sale of wine was yet to be found. The contract also contained a passage, that the banishment of the insurgents in was unjust and that the heirs would be allowed back into the city.

This contract ended the domination of the city by the bishops and Speyer became a free imperial city. Yet the conflict with the endowments about the privileges was far from settled.

In connection with the century-long conflict between city and church there is one of the earliest records of Carnival in Germany.

The clergy accused a number of council members of various violent acts, e. Apparently, these assaults were reason for the cathedral chapter to file suits against the council and the citizens and to threaten with excommunications.

Because of the determined reaction of the city, the matter fizzled out. Yet, it is telling that in this time of great religiousness, people were not sufficiently deterred by such threats of the church as not to partake in such carnival mischief.

On February 2, , Bishop Frederick agreed not to impose any excommunication, inhibition or interdict before the accused was duly cited and found guilty.

Thus, the resentment of the endowments was directed at the bishop and they continued to oppose the loss of their privileges.

It was only in that the archbishop of Mainz worked out a mediation. In the meantime, King Adolf granted Speyer additional privileges. In a document of he put the citizens of Speyer and Worms directly under his protection.

In return, the 2 cities promised the king their support. The citizenry was granted the right only to be tried in their own town. In addition, ownership of the diverted Speyerbach was returned to Speyer.

In , Speyer was adjudged the proceeds of the Jews in the city. On July 2, , a contingent from Speyer participated in the Battle of Göllheim on the side of King Adolf against anti-king Albert.

King Adolf was killed. Speyer soon allied itself with King Albert against the Rhenish electors and in he confirmed the privileges of the city which became his favoured place of residence.

In , Albert officially granted Speyer the right to levy the sales tax. In spite of the mediation efforts by the archbishop of Mainz, the quarrels continued.

Sigibodo of Lichtenberg, a follower of King Albert, succeeded Bishop Frederick as bishop of Speyer. King Albert had to promise to the Speyer clergy capitulatio caesarea that he would rescind the concessions made to the city.

Also, a squad of 60 mounted soldiers was assembled to fight against the Speyer citizenry. Speyer denied the bishop homage as well as entry into the city and banned the sale of wine by clerics and the payment of interest to the church.

In the following 7 months, warlike operations laid waste to the countryside in the vicinity of Speyer and the courts of the church. On October 4, , the warring parties signed a treaty in which all the demands of the citizenry were met.

Even the ban against selling wine to the clergy remained in force. The power of the bishops was confined to the area of immunity around the cathedral resulting in two distinct political entities within Speyer's city walls.

The controversy in Speyer between citizenry and clergy "generalis discordia" played only a minor role in the 14th century.

In the contest for the throne between the House of Wittelsbach and the House of Habsburg , Speyer again stood in the centre of imperial policies.

Against this background, a power struggle in the city council ensued between the minters' cooperative and the guilds.

In the beginning, the development of an urban establishment was a by-product of the bishop's rule of the city. The aristocratic and common servants as well as the experienced and rich citizens evolved into an administrative ruling class which was of decisive importance in the development of the cities.

The minters' coop had a long-time monopoly for monetary transactions, making them very influential with established close links to the monarchy.

From on, the ruling class merged with the merchants, the local nobility of the area and mainly the minters coop into a new establishment with hitherto unknown economical power.

The beginnings of the guilds in Speyer are not documented. When they were first mentioned in the beginning of the 14th century, they were already highly organized.

Cloth manufacturing in Speyer was pivotal. For that purpose the area of Speyer had turned into a centre for growing dyer's madder.

The guild citizenry made up the largest portion of Speyer's population. Another fifth each refers to textile manufacturing and services trade, serving wine, transportation, and markets.

Then there was fur and leather processing and trade, building trade, metal working and, not least, city employees and supervision staff. Some trades were located predominantly or only in a certain area of Speyer.

The tanners were in the western part of the suburb of Hasenpfuhl, the boatmen Hasenpfühler around the harbour area along the Speyerbach, the gardeners in the Gilgen-suburb, the fishermen in the Fisher-suburb.

The guild houses of the chandlers, shoemakers and blacksmiths settled south of the big market street, the bakers, butchers, tailors, wine sellers, weavers and masons on the northern side.

As a result of increasing pressure by the guilds, in it was agreed to compose the council with 11 members of the minters' coop and 13 of the guilds and that each group would furnish a mayor.

Yet, by , through skilled manoeuvering the minters' coop managed to hold all the council seats in their hands. During a diet in , Henry VII had the remains of Adolf of Nassau and Albert I , opponents in the battle of Göllheim transferred to Speyer and entombed next to each other in the cathedral.

These were the last two kings to be buried in Speyer. In the following year, on September 1, , Henry VII had his son of 14 years, John married to Elisabeth of Bohemia in the cathedral.

On March 20, , 13 guilds of Speyer joined into a confederation for mutual aid and enforced new council rules.

There would be 16 guild members and 15 members of the minters' coop, successfully ending the sole reign of the latter.

From that day on, documents were certified by the 2 mayors alone, not by the whole council. The revolt of Severin's Day was thwarted and the instigators were banished from Speyer.

The minters lost their last privilege in when a pure guild constitution for Speyer was accepted. From then on, the coop members had to organise themselves along the lines of the guilds which made them one group among 14 others.

Speyer took up fifth place among the imperial cities on the Rhenish Bench and it had a seat and one vote in the Upper Rhenish Circle.

In and Speyer hosted the association of imperial cities. The agreement on the balanced council did not end political conflicts in Speyer.

The second half of the 14th century started with the destruction and expulsion of the Jewish community , epidemics and Flagellant campaigns.

The following decades were characterised by the power struggle between various factions of influential Speyer families. The city was under heavy financial burdens because of various payments it had to make for its alliances.

The bishop and disempowered minters played upon the people's dissatisfaction. The citizens were outraged at the power games of Rudolf of Offenburg, councillor in and one of the mayors in He was banished from town for disturbing the peace, slander and forming malicious power groups and found exile with Margrave Rudolf IV of Baden.

His opponents, the Frispecher family, filled in the influential vacancies, facilitated by the council election rules of This, in turn, led to an open revolt against the city council headed by the minter Henry of Landau.

Together with 13 citizens he sacked the council and asked Rudolf of Offenburg back into the city. Yet, the revolt failed as they couldn't secure the formal approval by the citizenry.

Everybody was in arms and a fight was only avoided after arbitration by city councillors from Mainz and Worms. Heinrich of Landau and Rudolf of Offenburg both fled; some followers were apprehended and executed.

Heinrich of Landau found refuge with Speyer Bishop Adolf of Nassau who had been in a feud with the city since Their attempt to lay siege to Speyer in failed.

Henry's contacts in Speyer were discovered and executed. Count Palatine Ruprecht the elder had to broker a contract of atonement between the city and the bishop.

In , a conspiracy within the city council was uncovered. Background was the rivalry between the families of the Frispechers and the Fritzes.

After this coup was thwarted the power of the council somewhat stabilized but it was increasingly engrossed by the oligarchy of the guilds. The controversy between city, bishop and clergy continued to smolder in the background.

Because of this the city suffered from the considerable loss of revenues. Therefore, in , it prohibited citizens to buy wine from the clergy outside allocated times.

In , this ban was expanded. In , members of the cloth were excluded from citizen's rights which was meant to impede the function of the clerical court.

At least some of the clergy then applied for citizen's rights. In the second half of the 14th century it also became apparent, that the Speyer bishops would never give up their claim to lordship over the city.

While the bishop managed to get the support of Charles IV and particularly of the Count Palatine , the city could not anymore count on the unlimited backing of the emperor.

Speyer lost Karl's benevolence after, as most imperial cities, it had sided with Louis IV against the House of Luxembourg.

In addition, Speyer had opposed a candidate favoured by Karl, Lamprecht of Brunn, who became bishop of Speyer in Lamprecht, in turn, got Karl to confirm the contract detrimental to Speyer arranged by King Rudolf in This enabled the bishop to challenge contracts of and which again were detrimental to the church.

Yet, the city also managed to take advantage of conflicts between emperor and bishop. When Bishop Adolf of Nassau who unsuccessfully laid siege to Speyer in got into a political argument with Karl IV in , the emperor confirmed the city's taxation rights and the right to change the wine units.

The quarrels between Speyer and the bishops were to become more vicious yet. Bishop Nicolaus of Wiesbaden, inaugurated in , in league with the powerful Count Palatine, was very uncompliant, yet he was followed by an even more unyielding bishop, Raban of Helmstatt in , who almost made Speyer lose its independence.

Raban was a close confidant and chancellor of King Rupert III. In , Raban received an extensive confirmation of episcopal privileges which simultaneously abrogated all conflicting rights.

With the king's support, Raban subjected Speyer to reprisals by blocking grain imports in order to force the retraction of city laws against the clergy.

In turn, the citizenry refused payment of the tithe whereupon the cathedral chapter excommunicated Mayor Fritze. In the following years, city and clergy heaped lawsuits upon lawsuits on each other.

In , the city obtained a set of protection and confirmation certificates from antipope John XXIII. Another proven leverage of the church against Speyer was for the city clergy to leave town.

In , Speyer managed to convince King Sigismund to confirm privileges which Raban again managed to undermine with another affirmation of church rights the very same year.

An attempt to arbitrate the conflict before the king at the Council of Constance totally failed. It dawned on the council that negotiations, lawsuits and arbitrations wouldn't get them anywhere.

As of , Speyer sought military assistance which it found in count Stephan of Zweibrücken, an opponent of Bishop Raban. Already in the city had begun construction of a defensive dike around the city territory outside the walls.

It consisted of a ridge with a hedge and a moat with watchtowers made of wood or stone at intervals. Speyer also set up a squad of mercenaries as core of the city defence force.

These measures had actually become necessary because of increased feuding in which Speyer more often became involved. With the support of Count Stephan, in , the citizens of Speyer demolished the bishop's Marientraut castle, which was under construction at the Speyerbach in Hanhofen.

They used the stones to fortify their own city walls. A long process of lawsuits and arbitrations ensued in which Raban questioned the independence of Speyer and demanded , guilders compensation.

The arbitral Elector Palatine Louis III on October 3, , was basically all in favour of the bishop and devastating for Speyer. He not only awarded the clergy the right to taxation in the city, to import grain and serve wine, to fill posts of courts and offices but also confirmed the bishop's secular lordship.

Raban succeeded in thwarting a petition for help by Speyer to Pope Martin V and having the appeal assigned to Archbishop Conrad III of Mainz. Conrad's verdict of May 27, , essentially conformed to the arbitration by the Count Palatine and partially even went beyond.

Eventually, in , Raban managed to have the confirmation of privileges by Emperor Siegmund annulled. Speyer's last resort was active resistance by the citizenry.

The council ignored Conrad's verdict, declined further arbitrations and continued in its efforts to find political and military support. It signed alliance and aid treaties, e.

Hereupon, Raban pursued the conquest of Speyer, assembling an army with the help of Count Palatine Louis III, his brother, Count Palatine Otto I and the archbishops of Trier and Mainz.

The siege began in June and Speyer's resistance dwindled after 2 months. Yet, Emperor Siegmund intervened and prevented the subjugation of the city.

But Speyer was compelled to accept the verdict of Conrad, to pay 43, guilders compensation and to raise the pay of almost 60, guilders for the army.

The city introduced an extraordinary tax and mustered the last installment in November In letters of complaint to Emperor Siegmund, Speyer endeavoured to have the verdict abrogated or at least attenuated.

It closely explained the activities around the bishop and the disadvantages they entailed for the empire. Eventually, Siegmund did scrap the verdict and fully restored the rights of the city, but the document was never issued.

Raban, together with the archbishop of Mainz, again managed to foil a positive judgment for Speyer.

The city at least received a formal confirmation of its privileges and customary law but Conrad's verdict nevertheless remained in place for all newly upcoming disagreements and couldn't be altered without the clergy's consent.

For Speyer this constituted in considerable financial losses, constraints in its previous rights and thus in a setback in its urban development.

The loss of its imperial freedoms was staved off only narrowly. The legal distinction between citizens of the city and its ecclesiastic inhabitants remained.

Bishop Raban's struggle for dominion in the city failed and Speyer slowly recovered from this crisis. In , Speyer signed a year-protection treaty with Elector Palatine Louis III.

As of , the region was threatened by marauding Armagnacs from France. The cities of Speyer, Strassburg, Worms and Mainz aligned to put up a force of armed horsemen 30 from Mainz and Strassburg, 20 from Speyer and Worms.

Possibly because of this danger, the church and city moved closer together. The bishop also contributed to the defense of the city and hired a gunsmith who could also make gunpowder and train soldiers.

On April 25, , even a friendship treaty was signed. In , the council of imperial cities met in Speyer to deliberate the threat, in the city walls and the perimeter defensive dike were strengthened and another protection treaty was signed with the new Elector Palatine Louis IV.

Affairs with the emperor improved and Frederick III came to town in July In he called on Speyer to send deputies to the imperial diet in Nuremberg where the danger of the Armagnacs was to be deliberated.

On November 1 that same year another diet with the same topic took place in Speyer, but the Armagnacs retreated to Lorraine. In these years Speyer was time and again entangled in military conflicts or feuds, either because of its own direct involvement or because it had to support allies.

It was drawn into a greater conflict in when a war broke out between Electorate of the Palatinate and Palatinate-Zweibrücken.

Speyer contributed 50 marksmen to the side of the Palatinate. Allies of the Palatinate were also the bishop of Speyer, the Landgrave of Hesse and the cities of Weissenburg, Strassburg, Heilbronn and Wimpfen.

Speyer contributed marksmen which were sent on short notice to Mannheim. Shortly after, it supplied the Palatinate army with 30 armed men, 60 marksmen and 10 armed horsemen.

Many villages and towns in the region were devastated. Speyer participated July 4—7, , in the battle of Pfeddersheim with 60 marksmen and one army wagon.

On August 24 it participated with 50 marksmen in the escalade of the Leiningen castle in Hassloch; a year later the castle was totally razed.

Allies of Mainz, Veldenz and Leiningen, were decisively beaten in the battle of Meisenheim in June But matters hadn't been settled, yet.

There were 2 parties in a struggle for the archbishop's seat in Mainz. Speyer was in the uncomfortable position that its bishop sided with the pope and the emperor against the Palatinate and Hesse, the latter two banned and excommunicated.

The city was fiercely courted by both parties but it managed to keep itself out of the conflict even though the citizens supported the Count Palatine Frederick I and there were violent clashes with the bishop.

After the Battle of Seckenheim , victorious for Frederick, the city reconciled with the count and the bishop. But for Speyer it was very disquieting that the new archbishop of Mainz took possession of the city of Mainz on October 28, and the city lost its independence as a free imperial city.

The new bishop of Speyer, Mathew of Rammung, took over in He also strove to expand or regain the authority of the church. In the process Speyer, through no fault of its own, came into a conflict with the church.

In , at the behest of the imperial judicial court, it was to restore a citizen to his right against the bishop. In the bargain, in the escalating dispute the Count Palatine sided against Speyer.

He even considered capturing the city. It was only on December 21 that the emperor intervened and a contract ended the dispute.

Relations between the city and the bishop improved and in even a friendship treaty was signed. This did not end tensions with the clerics and Speyer grudgingly had to accept the completion of Marientraut castle in Hanhofen.

The count had taken possession of the Abbey and the town of Weissenburg. Both emperor and count demanded military support of Speyer. After the political setbacks in the first half of the 15th century, Speyer recovered in the later second half.

The lists of contained 8 whole and 8 half guilds. The whole guilds were:. The number of guilds in Speyer changed over time.

The given order reflects on their importance which was also subject to change. The minters provided the patricians of the city because of their importance for economy and politics resulting from their predominant role as wholesale merchants and moneylenders.

Speyer resumed a remarkably strong role in the money market of southwestern Germany. Including the supporting trades, such as spinning, dyeing, churning etc.

The Speyer cloth trade extended as far as the North Sea, the Baltic, Silesia, Transylvania and Switzerland. Speyer was also a major trading centre for wine.

Wine from the Palatine and Rhenish Hesse was shipped all over, usually by boat on the Rhine. By the end of the century, two renowned printers opened shop in Speyer, Peter Drach and Konrad Hist.

In , the Dominican Heinrich Kramer published his book Malleus Maleficarum , a treatise on the prosecution of witches, in Speyer.

Although soon condemned by the Catholic Church it was later used by royal courts and contributed to the increasingly brutal prosecution of witchcraft.

Speyer played a prominent role in the city politics of the empire. From the middle of the 15th century on, the emperors usually asked the imperial cities to participate in the diets.

As of they regularly took part, even though they were long from being considered equal to the other territories. In the end of the 15th century, the registry of the Rhenish League of Cities was set up in Speyer.

Speyer was requested to participate in the diet of in Regensburg where military aid against the Turks was discussed, who had captured Constantinople.

In several following meetings of the Rhenish cities association, one of them on August 1, in Speyer, the cities argued against the war tax levied by the emperor but he prevailed in his demand, that the cities contributed 1, men to an imperial army of 10, For Speyer, this translated into 22 men, 6 on horse and 16 on foot.

These kinds of contributions are an indication of the rank of a city at that time: Worms had to supply 15 men, Weissenburg 9, Nuremberg 42, Frankfurt 45, Strassburg and Cologne each On occasion of the diet of in Augsburg, there was another assembly of the cities in Speyer on November 30, , to discuss further support against the Turks.

Again, the cities were indignant but they approved aid for a war against Duke Charles of Burgundy who had attacked the bishopric of Cologne.

Speyer supplied men of which 10 did not return after 6 months. In Frankfurt in , it was decided that the cities support the cause against the Turks with , guilders.

Speyer paid 4,, Weissenburg , Worms 2,, Heilbronn 2,, Wimpfen , Frankfurt 10,, Strassburg and Nuremberg each 12, In , in Nuremberg, again payments were required: 1, from Speyer, from Weissenburg, from Worms, 2, from Frankfurt and 3, from Strassburg.

In , Speyer again supplied 74 mercenaries for a campaign of the emperor against Flanders in order to liberate heir apparent Maximilian from captivity.

Maximilian I acceded to the throne in and visited Speyer only a few months later until July In his company were not only his wife but also Albert III, Duke of Saxony , the legate of Naples and allegedly King Richard III of England.

In , a life-size sculpture of the Mount of Olives by Hans Seyffer was completed in the centre of the cloister on the south side of the cathedral.

From to , the western main gate Altpörtel was elevated to the height it has today without the roof , making it one of Germany's highest town gates.

The rounded late-Gothic arcades were already influenced by the Renaissance. Speyer's continuous obligations to the empire were a heavy burden on its citizens.

The tax system was especially disadvantageous for smaller assets. Increasing taxation lead to resentment also because of the tax exemptions for the clergy.

Similar revolts broke out in at least 19 other cities between and In Speyer it was triggered by a rumour in one of the guilds that the council conspired to deceive the citizenry in order to achieve more revenues.

An old letter of was found pertaining to the diminution of the wine unit. The heated atmosphere lead to arrests in June and to assemblies which were soon joined by all the guilds.

A major demand was that the council present all bills of the city.

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1 Kommentare zu „Speyer Ladies

  • 23.02.2020 um 23:52
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    Nach meiner Meinung, Sie auf dem falschen Weg.

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